Wednesday, September 6, 2017

A linear function unit that I finally like

There are tons of things I'm excited about this school year, but a craft of pain and love has been the development of a pretty cool intro unit to our co-taught Algebra class.  The goal is to build a base for an understanding of functions that we will explore in depth all year.  We start with linear because they are used to it (I'm pretty sure that the goal of 8th grade is to pound lines into brains), but everything in this unit is a launching point for something else.

I like the daily variety -- students graph conceptually (with Desmos sliders), read stories, write stories, create equations, make tables and examples, create patterns, interpret patterns, and have to constantly use words to explain what is going on.  It is inspired by a ton of cool resources that we've stumbled on in the Math Twitter-Blog-osphere, especially Visual Patterns.  It builds up throughout the unit until the last two sections put the pieces all together as prep for a two-giant-question test.  Each section has short quizzes with retakes to demonstrate complete mastery.

Besides being a base for normal mathy things like quadratic functions, it also introduces elements of the Bootstrap Algebra curriculum.  Bootstrap is a free programming environment + curriculum designed specifically for teaching math.  It is exciting because it involves students making their own video games, but it also offers an efficient way to teach a deep intuition around what functions do and how they work.  It uses a custom-design programming language and environment based on Scheme, a "functional language".  This is different than most languages used in school and industry (C, Java, Python) because it prevents anti-math statements common in software development like x = x + 1 from creating math misconceptions (amongst a bunch of other benefits).  The main developer, an amazing guy named Emmanual, has a deep understanding of both software and effective math instruction.  If you think you like Bootstrap, I recommend the in-person workshops to really build up a sense of purpose and a vision for implementation.

The unit is broken into seven sections that bridge different forms of linear functions:
A: Tables to Graphs (graph points in Desmos, match a y=mx+b line to the points with sliders)
B: Visual Patterns to Words (analyze a pattern for rate of change, starting point, and create stories)
C: Words to Tables & Examples (read a story, work through Bootstrap example cases, fill a table)
D: Words to Visual Patterns (create a structured pattern from a story)
E: Words to Equations (work through a simplified Bootstrap design recipe and create an equation)
F: Visual Patterns to Tables, Words, & Equations (review pattern -> everything else)
G: Words to Visual Patterns, Examples, Tables, & Equations (review story -> everything else)

Feel free to borrow/adapt any of it if you wish.  Email me (rockychat3 at gmail) if you want a set of A/B/C quizzes and a test to go with it.  And please, comment or email me if you make it better -- no hogging good ideas.  The example stories are definitely a weak spot.

Note that graphing is only briefly introduced at the start and then goes largely ignored.  In our 3rd unit of the year, we explore the different forms of writing equations and spend a ton of time creating graphs in the most intuitive manner from each form (of point-slope, 2 points, slope-intercept, parallel/perpendicular to something).

Also note that sections are named after dinosaurs, because, why not?  And only one of them is made up due to the fact that real dinosaurs that start with F are not things you want 9th graders to try to pronounce.

Friday, June 9, 2017

Oddly motivated

I tend to plan out blog posts and iterate a few times before posting, but this revelation hit me like a ton of bricks 10 seconds ago: I am oddly motivated for next school year.  I just submitted my 2016-17 grades yesterday.  I have always loved what I do, but not like that.

The speed of the turnaround is connected to a lack of burnout.  This was an exhausting school year in many ways, but it didn't kill me like most do.  I think a few things helped with this.

First, I had a baby in January.  Usually, this should have the opposite effect, but it meant paternity days.  This is the best concept employers ever came up with, as it gave me an opportunity to continue to push hard at work while making myself available as actual help around the house.  It was also a chance to really enjoy and treasure the early days with my son, Lukas, who is now a giant 4-month-old.  Without this time, that would have been just a blink.  A day out of the classroom is hard, but when you have a fantastic sub (thank you, Marlene, and other Byron teachers subbing during prep), you can trust that most things are still carrying forward.  Since my 9th-grade class is co-taught, it also meant continuity while I was out.  This fell on the shoulders of Rachel, student teacher, and Brandon, SpEd co-teacher, who were great.  In all classes, the team picked up my slack.  Thank you.

I was gone even more with an extra trip for robotics.  This was our first year going to Worlds down in St. Louis.  The extra 3-days out of school following 2 schools in Duluth for our regional created more breaks from the usual daily routine.

I also had a relaxed schedule this year.  The teacher schedule typically consists of short lunches, sprints to the bathroom between classes, and generally running around with your head cut off.  Instead, I had prep in the morning with my co-teaching team immediately followed by math.  After that, I left the building to meet a tiny section of Grand Challenge Design students.  This time was heavily self-directed by students, freeing me part of the period to further develop the classroom makerspace, handle space logistics, and do my own tech project to further skills that I would need to later teach students.  Being in another building the rest of the day also meant not taking on a high school advisory, saving independent time to continue these projects.  My day ended with my larger GCD class which, though crazy, had a positive energy with great ideas and questions.  Rather than running to my next class, students trickled in as they arrived from their drive and I had a chance to greet them at the door.  Unfortunately, I'm back to a more traditional schedule next year, but things are in a much better place to not depend on that R&D/setup time next year.

As part of the extra time, I took on a lot more roles.  I was a construction worker, electrician, purchasing agent (I raised and spent over $8,000 with an average purchase around $20...I was receiving a package/day or more for the entire year), accountant, connector, custodian, designer, engineer, architect, and probably a zillion other things.  The variety was exhausting at times, but it was truly invigorating.  I learned so much and dabbled in so many things while trying to bring our space and class to life.

The year also ended looking forward.  I had a ton of opportunities to reflect with awesome people.

The Bush Foundation hosted "School Design for Personalized Learning", a series of sessions designed to help school teams implement personalized learning and apply for Bush funding to support the work.  Our team of co-teacher Brandon, principal Steve, tech/innovation director Jen, and instructional coach Andy, did the first session virtually at our own pace.  We then traveled to St. Paul for the follow-up, focusing our design and ideation around our challenging 9th-grade inclusion Algebra class.  I will create a full post on our ideas for that class, but we discovered that the core problem was class culture and our ability to create an emotionally safe space for learning.  Besides major changes in classroom management, we plan to positively frame this with a weekly trip to the elementary school to have our struggling learners tutor younger struggling learners.  We will focus on mindset, language, and approach with both our 9th graders and tutees.  An additional idea to build in computer science and game design, fueled by an opportunity from the Infosys Foundation,, and Bootstrap, have us especially excited for the next iteration of our Algebra class.

GCD also went through significant reflection, but that was fueled by conversations with my students.  We spent hours thinking aloud through the early game-construction / R&D part of the course, the game phase, the game redesign, and the open project time.  We reflected on what was fun, what was productive, what was hard but positive, what was frustrating, and what the next generation of the class could look like.  The vision I have moving forward emerged directly from all of these varied conversations.  It will still have significant revision throughout the next school year, but I now know SO much more about where to go that the initial plan should be able to hold.

I also had a chance to reflect with my college friends on the year.  Thanks to a weekend ordination of an engineer-turned-priest (some of us Oliners stay engineers...I swear), a number of my favorite people were in the same place at once.  As I talked about the year, they provided a lot of great feedback and ideas on what I could try next.  Many of these friends were GCD mentors for students and thus stayed in the loop, in some form, during the year.

Finally, the Robotics team is fired up and moving forward, and their energy is carrying me.  Our new coach, Sean, designed an amazing structure for leadership moving forward.  Each student leader is paired with a 1:1 or 2:1 mentor for an initial interview, monthly reflective check-ins, and ongoing support.  The student leaders then, as a team, divide up the roles and collectively run the team.  The model's design makes students far more likely to make decisions, with adult support, rather than the opposite.  By starting now, it means that we will have strong recruiting, clear organization, internal training, and a healthy rhythm heading into the year.  Coming off of St. Louis and the state tournament, the team is hungry to be back.  This energy means that I am actively spending time in reflective and forward-looking interviews with students, churning my gears about what comes next for our team, our space, and GCD.

I will admit that I slept 9 hours last night.  That felt great and my body desperately needed it.  I also spent the full day with my kids while my wife worked the last of her 12-hour shifts for the week and had a great time with them.  That said, I am back in full planning mode for 2017-18.  I will grow a ton as a teacher and classes will be so much better for students than they were this year.

Tuesday, May 2, 2017

An end to grad school

After two years, it is hard to believe that my graduate program is coming to an end.  At this time in 2015, I had no intention of taking additional grad school courses anytime in the next decade.  Jen pitched her new program as a small cohort that would explore digital instruction, reflection, connection to other educators, student passions, teacher passions, design, and teacher leadership.  Given the people involved and the district's offer to cover the costs for participants, I didn't dare miss out.

Looking back, we got what we were promised.  The five courses were each intense and pushed me to be better at a lot of things that I considered myself above average with.  The final course, which focused on leadership and design, introduced fewer new ideas and instead tied things together.

I found the single most impactful element of the course to be our study on influence.  We read the book Influencer, a book with a great framework that focuses on vital behaviors and crucial moments.  It also identified six sources of motivation to encourage change.  I had read the book before, but the more structured study led me to understand it much better.  Additionally, we demonstrated our understanding of influence and the diffusion of innovation with a simulation.  This website puts you in the role of a staff member who is attempting to spread a new teaching method across the staff.  I love simulations, but this one was very well done and felt accurate to the research.  I believe that more specific and applied influence strategies will be the most powerful skill I can take away from this course.

We further explored leadership in the course in a few ways.  The book "The Truth About Leadership" went through 10 concepts that proved true over a number of years.  I reflected on many of these in a number of blog posts.  This process forced me to dig deeper into my practice, realize how I already was improving, and look at all the space ahead of me to continue getting better.

The course also looked at innovation via design thinking.  Innovation is change, an important attribute for both formal and informal leaders.  Design Thinking is a specific process that starts and ends with end users.  It allows leaders to learn about their customers and provides a framework to help designers maximize design iterations.  Our final cohort activity and project used design thinking to learn about and design alternatives to professional development.

The program as a whole did a great job of taking my strengths and pushing them further.  Jen's use of reflection and self-driven project work allowed all of us to move beyond the basics and find the appropriate level of challenge.

It was also helpful to look back on my goals from two years ago.  I believe that they are still relevant, a positive thing that shows focus over an extended time.  My first goal was to improve traditional math instruction.  I don't think I am anywhere near where I want to be, but two years of teaching an intervention Algebra course has underscored the importance of relevant curriculum and multiple pathways that each demonstrate content mastery.  This course also led to more outreach to the MTBoS community (an open blog and Twitter-based group of math teachers) where I find great resources and amazing people to help me think through ideas.

My second goal: Improve non-traditional STEM experiences in Byron.  This took form as Grand Challenge Design, my year-long class focused on major world challenges and the internet of things (IoT) technologies.  This course wasn't even an idea when the program started.  Now, it has gone through many iterations with my first group of students.  There were many successes and twice as many failures.  With the help of my students, I am learning the technology, understanding what students care about, and figuring out how I can inspire students to do awesome things.  I explored grading and assessment, use of time, teams and individual work, and many other areas.  Everything about this course was highly influenced by the Innovative Instructional Leadership graduate work.  Beyond GCD, this goal also looked at robotics at all levels in Byron.  I helped to grant-fund and kickstart the FLL Jr. and FTC programs so that students of every age in Byron could engage in the fantastic FIRST robotics programs.  I also continue to actively volunteer with our FRC (FIRST Robotics Competition) high school team.

My third goal was to become an effective leader in an innovative environment.  This is harder to measure.  My role as a teacher in GCD and mentor in robotics both involve significant leadership in a rapidly changing environment, and in both roles, I continue to improve.  I also received a full week in Spring 2016 to expand my skills as a teacher and school leader by observing teachers in some of the most innovative schools across Southern California.  I visited High Tech High, Dos Pueblos Engineering Academy, and a number of amazing schools in the Bay area, posting summaries and reflections to my blog.  I learned so much during that short trip, and I continue to come to new insights from those observations.  I plan to continue to look outward and learn through observation of others around me.  I don't think I want to go into administration, but I do want to be in a role where I have significant responsibility and can lead peers while remaining in the classroom.

Looking forward, I am excited for what comes next.  The program ends, but I will continue to try new things, reflect, and connect with peers to accelerate my learning.

Tuesday, January 31, 2017

How I Lead

My greatest strengths as a leader line up nicely with the last three chapters of Kouzes and Posner's "The Truth About Leadership": leading by example, being a continuous learner, and always having heart.  My greatest weakness, communicating the path forward, is what sits between heart and example.  I think the only solution for this is to not only be a lifelong learner, but to teach those I lead to also become better learners.

Grand Challenge Design is a great example of my problem.  I lead the class with lots of heart.  Deep down, I believe that the fully implemented version of this course will enable young people to develop new passions and useful skills, see school as serving both an immediate and a long-term purpose, and help our world actually solve huge challenges.  More immediately, I care deeply about the students I have today and have many 1:1 chats and small group conversations in order to better connect with them as people and help them grow.

As a vision-leader for the course, I can picture the kinds of thoughts and conversations that students are having in the fully-built simulation.  I can see them exploring a variety of business strategies, analyzing the tradeoffs between health and economics, deciding how best to organize a city, and trying to troubleshoot network problems on a handful of devices.  The problems they deal with are far above their head, giving them a great reason to connect with adult mentors who can support them in their learning.  In my head, all of this connects to a handful of experiences in my past in fuzzy ways that makes it hard to fully nail down exactly what the end goal looks like.  All I know is that it will "feel" right when we're close.  It is hard to get others, especially high school students in a small city in Minnesota, to see the vision in my gut.  Even for those who do have a decent sense of the end point, the path forward is fuzzy at best.

For me as one of the simulation designers, I am comfortable with the fuzziness because I know how to take the next step forward.  I am very confident in my ability to learning anything -- if there is something I need to understand or be able to do, I will use the internet and the help of the people around me to figure it out.  I am also comfortable with iteratively deploying an idea and adapting as I observe and hear feedback.  As an individual designer, that works great.  The problem is that I am a leader of a large class of co-designers who need direction and support.

In my math classes, I see the vision of the full course with a lot of clarity, break down the whole into units with testable end-points, and further break down every skill into its finest components so that every student can master it.  In GCD, I only lead by example.  I do a little bit of programming to blaze a path, then handoff the clearer tasks to a team of students who can create new things from my initial examples.  Two of our mentors lead in similar ways with our physical game board and our network control system, leaving lots for students to still learn on their own, but making the path forward clear enough to get started through their own examples.  The power in this model of learning is that students can learn side-by-side as other adults and I try things we have never done either.  The challenge is that we cannot give clear explanations or promise that the thing we're trying now is the best way to do it.  It is also a painfully inefficient means of transferring skills.  It prepares students for challenging, open-ended work, but it doesn't lead to students exiting the course with a great set of hard skills.

I believe that in an ideal education, there is a time and place for both.  The more skills that can be directly transferred, the better, as it enables young people to do interesting, professional-grade work.  The R&D and exploration help students learn how to learn and to handle the kinds of challenges that many employers need to solve: the problems that haven't been solved (well) yet by anyone else.  In GCD, we are trying to reinvent how classroom learning works, so none of us know the obvious path forward.  To actually teach students how to learn, I need to push them to try new things and use the online resources and people in their lives to support them in solving problems without me.  I need to show them frameworks for Design Thinking, Future Problem Solving, Entrepreneurial Thought & Action and Lean Startup approaches, the Engineering Process, and other approaches that make fast learning and broad thinking likely to take place.  However, I need to make sure that I build the need for these frameworks into the simulation or course so my advice and support come as a solution to a problem rather than an add-on to a busy day.  I'm making progress, but I have a long way to go yet.

Sunday, January 22, 2017

Support in change

One thing I'm learning fast is that I'm doing a lot of hard things this year.  Going in, I knew that designing a game that teaching advanced tech while simulating the world and exploring Grand Challenges would be tough to facilitate.  I also knew that an intervention math class that is aiming to pull kids to accelerated levels of proficiency by the end of the year, while managing a huge variety of personalities and behaviors, was going to be draining and tricky.  There have been tons of bright spots in the year, but not right now.

In our Grad School prompts this week, Jen asked us to reflect on our support team and the role of trust in change.  Both fit together nicely with how I get through each day.

When I started teaching in Byron, I was a year-long intern working under math teachers Rob and Troy.  They were core support throughout that first year and the many years to follow.  They had a ton of useful experience to draw on, but usually, they just asked me the right questions and facilitated my own learning.  For this, I could never repay them.

More recently, I spent a larger fraction of my day teaching intervention math classes.  With Independent Math (self-paced, computer-based curriculum), many of my students were also in a Study Skills course.  I was constantly connecting with those teachers for strategies and support.  I also had a lot more behavior and emotional problems, so I spent a lot of time connecting with the office team.  When I started co-teaching last year for the Basic+Intermediate Algebra course, collaboration went from a nice support to daily life.  Ashlee (SpEd) and I constantly helped each other think through the challenges we faced in the classroom.  Because things were so difficult for both of us, we constantly reached out to our instructional coach, Andy, our principal and asst. principal Steve and Malia, and a number of peers across the building that we looked up to.  Our support team formed because of our problem and all the people who cared about us and our students.  Now, as I teach a class with different (and I think harder) challenges with Brandon and Rachel, I again can't imagine doing it alone.  Their teaching skill supporting me each day is huge, but the emotional support of doing something challenging with others you trust is very powerful.

I also have a somewhat separate network that I turn to in pushing forward with radically new innovations in the classroom.  I was fortunate to be granted time to work with Matt Weyers and the awesome teams he was with during two years of PBL pilots.  Matt continues to push me and help me think through my own course designs.  Around the same time, I was a Digital Learning Coach under our tech director++, Jen Hegna, who is a force of nature with innovation and pushing deeper learning forward in the district.  She has individually encouraged me, provided crazy amounts of feedback, and helps spark a number of ideas.  My graduate program and all that it pushed me to think through is her fault.  Support has also come through our admin team -- they feel like bulldozer drivers sometimes the way they just plow through barriers.  I can't think of a district where an idea can be pitched and a 2 credit class can be on the books in under a month, and then by the next fall, a 3-teacher interdisciplinary course based on it is already taking its place.

A third network, the robotics program, has been amazing.  When I started, there were a couple crazy adults that joined late in the year to help.  Now, there is an army of parents, alumni, and community members that make our team and everything we do just hum along.  The team is so powerful that I was able to step down as head coach this year, be replaced by someone without specific experience in FRC or robotics, and our team is doing better this year so far than we ever have.  I love working with and learning from this group of fantastic mentors.  I also really love working with the group of kids that have been part of the program for many years -- I have deep trust for them, and over time, have earned their trust.  Despite all of the adult support for Grand Challenge Design, I told my robotics students to take the class (a HUGE schedule killer) and 13 of 17 did it without seeing any plan.  If that isn't trust, I don't know what is, and I am more motivated than ever to follow through with that in GCD this year.

Outside of school, I am incredibly thankful for my wife who loves me even when I'm not that lovable.  As a bonus, she pushes me, gives me ideas, and creates time and space for my own passions.  The emotional support network of my friends in Rochester and my family back in Wisconsin enable me to take all the risks that I do.  The wider network of friends from college that helps me think through my ideas and reflect on tough questions is also amazing.

My support teams across the board are built completely on relationships.  At school, change happens quickly because of mutual trust -- I know what is expected of me when trying something new, and everyone involved knows that I will do what it takes to will something into existence.  I spend a lot of time talking to people in any given day, mainly because I need to in order to do my job well.  In most cases, I have lived up to others' expectations and built a track record of working hard and caring for kids.  I am also usually good about building a track record of caring about my peers and helping when I can.  This creates trust.

Do I think trust is necessary for change?  No.  Is it necessary for fast change?  Absolutely.  Rational people will eventually change when they believe that the new way of doing something is better than the old way, assuming they have the time and support to learn the new way.  You don't need trust to come to that belief, but that means you have to experience it yourself.  In a high-trust environment, I will try something just because you say it is awesome.  You will give me permission to take risks without proof that I know what I'm doing.  This lets innovation and new ideas take-off in an organization.  In a culture that is focused on student learning and growth, not just new-ness, all of this innovation will be constantly evaluated and tweaked as groups of peers push each other to improve.  Trust is the catalyst that gets everything moving.

As I push through the challenging spots of this year, especially with a new baby about to be born any day, I am SO thankful for the people in my day-to-day and the extended team around me, those listed above and the countless others who are pouring into me daily.  I don't have all the answers, but because of all of the people I trust that surround me, I don't need all of the answers.  I just need to be open and honest with my challenges and be willing to listen as they help me do what is best for our students.

Tuesday, January 17, 2017


As part of an entry to the US Department of Education's EdSimChallenge contest, a few students and I wrote a 2000+ essay describing our vision.  Since the course title Grand Challenge Design no longer communicated the meaning of the simulation itself, I rebranded GCD as the MiniCity Simulation.  I thought it was worth sharing our contest video and application.

Submission Description:
A classroom of student business owners cooperate and compete in connected industries to keep a 3D-printed miniature city full of digital citizens healthy and happy.

ENGAGEMENT: Describe your simulation concept, including an overview of the content and a brief walk-through of the planned user experience. Identify which types of learners your simulation will initially target. Describe how your simulation will engage users at a level on par with commercially available entertainment games.

MiniCity plays like a multiplayer game of SimCity on a physical game table built up by the class.

Students control physical land, digital money, and a Raspberry Pi computer and use these to build up a business empire. Students have a choice in where they make their investments: game industries include food production, transportation, energy, and housing. Each of these includes key components such as farms, grain mills, and grocery stores. Since all parts are interdependent, players need to monitor the decisions of their peers to decide where they can add the most value. As they engage in their role, students become emotionally invested in the outcomes of their companies.

Despite the individual autonomy over land and businesses, MiniCity is a cooperative game: the class collectively wins by maintaining an 80% happy population of virtual citizens (determined by income, housing, environment, and other factors). All players are punished by unhappy citizens through vacant properties and understaffed businesses.

Players also control governments at the county and town levels. They have the freedom to experiment with the system of government of their choice. They can also pass laws that levy taxes, ban industrial pollution, or regulate housing prices, with every action directly impacting gameplay. The social dynamics in our simplified prototype have already proven how engaged an entire class becomes when individual agendas and strategies collide with a class-controlled government.

The most important game mechanic that engages students is where the technical learning occurs: building new businesses. While basic farming simply requires the purchase of seeds and water, optimal farming requires a digitally-controlled irrigation system and grow lights. To implement this, a student has to program a Raspberry Pi computer to trigger lights to turn on and a pump to move actual water from the central river. In the housing industry, players build upgraded apartments by modeling it in CAD software and 3D-printing it. The teacher’s role is to support students as they physically build their empire.

The bare structure of the game empowers players to fill the gaps with their imaginations. Students stumble upon issues as they progress throughout the game rather than being presented a topic for the day by a teacher. In our alpha prototype, students have already formed intercity corporations, farming businesses, law firms, and banks. Others decided to work independently, becoming career politicians, freelance farmers, and electricians. In an infamous hostile takeover of the county government, engagement went through the roof as the class collectively shut down a student exploiting loopholes and redesigned the entire government to prevent future dictators. Most significantly, students come to class with better and deeper questions every day as we progress through the game: “How do stocks work?” “What is ROI?” “Why are 18 volts running through my pump on a 5-volt circuit?” “How does the government control land use?” “Who pays for roads?”

Most simulations teach the HOW of key skills. MiniCity, despite being much simpler to implement, engages students by making them ask WHY.

LEARNING OUTCOMES: Explain the desired change or transformation in the user’s knowledge and skills. What academic, technical, and employability skill-learning objectives will your simulation seek to transfer? Detail the subject area(s) and/or curricular area(s) that your simulation addresses. Briefly review how your simulation will communicate feedback to the user and instructor with respect to progress toward achievement of the learning outcomes.

Students develop skills in technology, social sciences, communication, and collaboration during gameplay. For a student to progress, they need to develop some sort of enterprise or employable skill. Students will learn to direct their own learning as needed by the game, resulting in one mastering software, another learning to build group consensus, and yet another becoming an expert on water pollution. In all paths, students need to understand the complex system of the interconnected industries and how one action affects other parts.

Along with business, students must learn about government to bring order and consistency to the game. The game begins with a bare-bones constitution, leaving students in charge of government structure, enforcement and interpretation of laws, and passing new regulations. Once laws are put in place, students read them closely to find loopholes, thus providing the authors with valuable feedback on legal writing.

On the game table, most buildings get upgraded by designing a CAD model and producing it with a 3D printer. Every in-game building has basic specifications that players need to meet in their model, thus demonstrating an understanding of this skill while completing a game task. To encourage every player to try a game action like this (rather than relying on specialists), discounts can be offered for the first building. If a teacher has specific content outcomes, she can create in-game objectives with financial bonuses. Students include pictures, screenshots, and short reflections to retain a record of their learning. All of this can be viewed in aggregate by the teacher, better enabling her to notice and intervene with students who are not progressing.

Most game systems require an electrical control system with lights, servos, and sensors connected to a Raspberry Pi computer. The systems communicate data to and from the game server or individual data-monitoring tools. This is the same technology that forms the heart of the Internet of Things. APIs and technical documentation simply become part of students’ daily experience in-game.

Most of the game server comes with no visual interface by design. Students use a Chrome add-on to post API requests to the game server to list products on the market, transfer money, or take any digital action. The inefficiency for people using the API offers an opportunity for players to start their own mobile app companies, selling subscriptions to use a simple, time-saving interface.

The most significant learning comes from exposure to the key themes of the National Academy of Engineering’s Grand Challenges. These are huge, interdisciplinary problems such as providing clean water, restoring urban infrastructure, and securing cyberspace. The problems are embedded as tradeoffs during gameplay that require both diplomatic and technical solutions.

Again, MiniCity doesn’t teach the HOW of any of these skills, and yet in our prototype game, we found that it produced the motivation to learn all of these. Peers, online resources, and the teacher can all offer direction as students learn these skills -- the game simply gives them an immediate reason to care.

COMMITMENT: Describe your team and characterize its strengths and commitment. How is your team best suited to bring this concept to fruition? Describe how your team plans to develop your simulation over the course of the Challenge.

Unlike most teams, our simulation is teacher, student, and mentor-built. We play and develop the game as a class for 80 minutes daily during the school year. With an active role in the development of the very game they are playing, students develop a sense of ownership and are eager to contribute to the evolution of the course.

As the lead developer and teacher, my background spans engineering, entrepreneurship, and education. I graduated from Olin College of Engineering, a school built 15 years ago with the explicit goal of reinventing engineering education through hands-on, integrated coursework. I majored in computing, but outside of the classroom I was learning about and designing tools for innovative schools. Now, as a licensed teacher, I have been working to innovate school curriculum to engage students more holistically.

Development and continuous feedback are supported by the pilot class of 23 students. Half of our class days are spent designing and building the game with the remaining days focused on playing the prototype.

As a group, we work in fast two-week sprints to iterate the rules and introduce new game components. In November, we had a generic idea and rough set of rules. Now, we have a functional NodeJS game server, a home-brew CNC router operational and cutting out the hexagon-tiled surface of the 6’x13’ game table, our Raspberry Pis are successfully running a mentor-developed control system, and the game economy is relatively balanced.

Over the coming weeks, we are expanding the prototype to include virtual citizens, housing, and employees. Once implemented, we will rebalance the economy and continue adding new industry verticals one-at-a-time. The game board frame and river are ready and the surface will continue to be machined. Our subteams have clearly defined roles on build days. We are highly confident in our design and implementation processes and see the game developing significantly throughout the rest of the year.

After our initial success, our school district committed to the second year of our course, but this time I will be joined by two co-teachers licensed in social studies and language arts. In this integrated course, we will re-theme the game so that players experience the challenges of ancient city life throughout key periods of world history before advancing to the present. The three-teacher team is critical for clarifying and deepening the learning objectives embedded within the MiniCity simulation so that students can earn a variety of required credits in a single course block.

Moving beyond the small town of Byron, MN, I will leverage a broad base of teacher contacts locally and nationally through my blog, Twitter, and the Grand Challenge Scholars Program. I also have engineering contacts through Olin College with deep ties to progressive high schools. This network can be greatly expanded to many interested teachers with the help of the Department of Education and the EdSimChallenge contest.

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY: What tools, software, and/or hardware will be required to run your simulation in the classroom environment? Identify any anticipated logistical, technological, or economic barriers to deploying your simulation. Briefly preview your initial thoughts around distribution, implementation, and integration with existing and future technology. How do you plan to control the costs associated with purchase and maintenance of the simulation and associated technology?

MiniCity has a fully open and modular design. The only limitation from bringing it into another classroom is the teacher’s confidence jumping into a host of new technologies. Its dissemination will rely on a core group of innovative risk-takers to adapt and try the simulation at their school. This group can then mentor and encourage the next wave of teachers as they make it work for their students.

In order to ease the transition for new teachers to adopt MiniCity, a top priority over the next semester is compiling and creating tutorial videos that demonstrate the setup of the core technology. This will also help my own students as they try to efficiently share their different knowledge domains with one another.

Thankfully, cost is not one of the major barriers to implementation. By starting with almost no money ourselves, we designed with low-budget schools in mind. Through the physical game table, MiniCity immerses users without expensive VR sets or advanced PCs. We built and operate the digital game server at no cost. All electronics were sourced for incredibly low prices from China. All startup supplies for a class of 30, including 1:1 Raspberry Pi computers, can be purchased for under $3000, well within the range of a grant or many schools’ technology budgets. Adding 3D printers to this adds $400-$900 per unit. Ongoing costs for additional plastic filament and replacement electronics are under $1000/year.

By the end of the school year, the full game rules, technical documentation, parts lists, and software will be organized into a single website. The site will also include any learning resources we create or compile. Our goal is to make everything we do transparent and available for innovative teachers to jump right in. I am directly invested in this process of organizing as I prepare to bring two new teachers on-board at my school before next fall.

Ongoing maintenance will be a task for the open source community around the game. I intend to continually use MiniCity in my classroom for years to come and thus remain a core leader in its maintenance. Beyond free online support, I would run a summer workshop at our school to prepare groups of interested teachers and professors to launch their own MiniCities by the fall. My students or I could be contracted to provide further on-site or 1:1 support.

Once adopted, MiniCity can be significantly adapted to meet a variety of educational outcomes, including the world history theme that we will launch with our own students next fall. Re-theming the simulation is highly feasible for a variety of classroom content areas thanks to the modular application design.

LONG-TERM VISION: How might your simulation fit into a future ecosystem of simulations for career and technical education (CTE)? Briefly describe preliminary thinking around how your simulation could connect with other simulations through approaches to data handling, use of APIs, integration of open source tools, and/or implementation of Experience API (xAPI). Describe your vision for how the simulation could expand or scale. How could your simulation be built upon by other developers?

Within the world of simulations, MiniCity offers a break from VR sets and TV screens to put students face-to-face around a complex challenge. The broad nature of the experience gives students a chance to try out many roles -- business leader, congressperson, farmer, engineer, electrician -- without committing to a narrow track early in high school. My students and I believe that this simulation will be the catalyst that encourages students to go deeper with more focused, single-career simulations in future coursework.

The simulation software will generate key financial, health, and happiness metrics each day as it analyzes the decisions of the virtual citizens. From this data, it could export useful stats to xAPI or similar systems that universally track student actions. The open source tools would allow new teachers to see how an established system works and thus make their first course flow more smoothly.

The simulation will grow in multiple respects. New industries will be added as new microservices in the application. Political structures will evolve. Beyond gameplay, the simulation as a course can expand to formalize the education students receive in language arts and history. Over time, additional coursework including entrepreneurship, statistics, political science, and agriculture can all be integrated.

The most exciting possibility for MiniCity is the chance to directly connect with additional sites around the nation and world. Rather than simply selling goods at the ports “overseas”, students would now be able to actually sell their goods through a peer-to-peer market to another classroom. Prices for virtual materials and services would be shared via API requests between MiniCity simulations. A new layer of government, the state, could be composed of student representatives from dozens of classrooms who are working to pass fair laws across the entire system. This opens a whole new world for trade, business, entrepreneurship, and politics. The learning experience gains value as you incorporate more and more students, and even community mentors, outside of a single classroom.

These classrooms could also connect outside of the game to present their learning at conferences and organize social meetups. In particular, the social network of the teachers would stay tightly connected online as we support each other in the implementation of our shared virtual society. The social integration and buy-in of a worldwide group of teachers may be the most powerful opportunity for MiniCity to advance engaging student learning.

Sunday, January 15, 2017

My Why --> My What

As our Innovative Instructional Leadership cohort continues through Kouzes and Posner's The Truth About Leadership, I was asked to reflect on what brought me into education, what roadblocks are in the way, and what new opportunities lay ahead.

I fell in love with education in my first year of college.  Olin College was my top choice school because of its hands-on and student-driven approach to engineering from the very first day of class.  As I was heading into my second semester, I was part of a group of six students who decided to create our own class, MetaOlin, and find six professors to each teach us a two-week segment.  As a group, we studied our own school through the lenses of systems engineering, diversity and privilege, digital communications, pedagogy, history, and information literacy.  Many of the units focused on the learning environment of the college analyzed in different ways, but the specific pedagogy unit opened me up to a totally new field of study.  I followed this up the next semester with a course at nearby Wellesley College, Improving Schools, that studied a variety of models of standard, private, and public charter schools that significantly improved student results.  By the end of this course, I was so addicted that I needed to take a year off of college just to study our nation's schools.

My leave of absence year was spent living with five other classmates doing the same thing.  We found the overlap of our interests -- a startup tech business focused on improving collaborative learning in schools -- and pursued this head-on.  During that year, my free time was invested in books about learning (lots of John Holt and similarly old classics).  My side job was planning curriculum and teaching at a weekend STEM program for high school students.

In my junior year after the leave, I committed myself to a temporary year-long focus on software skills in order to build some technical competence.  By my senior year, I decided that I wanted to create and lead a charter school modeled after the awesome school systems I had been studying and visiting over the past few years.  In order to get licensed, I needed three years of management or three years of teaching experience.  If I wanted to have a clue about what I was doing, I needed the teaching, so I found Winona State University-Rochester near my new post-marriage home and started the fastest, most hands-on licensure program I could find.  That brought me to Byron.

Since I started, my WHY has remained focused on redesigning the system to make learning relevant and meaningful to students so that we would be able, as a society, to solve the complex problems in our world and so that students would be excited to engage in this journey of lifelong learning.

This translated into many of the projects I poured myself into since I started teaching (see my last post).  All of this is preparing me to design the best learning environments possible.  Moving forward, I am finally coming head to head with the largest challenge that I feared when I started: the credit hour, also known as the Carnegie Unit.  Almost nobody believes that learning occurs just because time passes in a scheduled space, and yet the complexities of organizing people into places with enough adults per student has made this piece of our system indispensable.  If you add to that the need for whole groups to move through material together in time, the schedule becomes nearly impossible to take on.

I think the long-term vision for this breaks away from a schedule and tracks objective-connected learning for each student.  Students still need individual attention and monitoring, making advisors and special education teachers all the more important.  Rather than classes, shorter projects and learning modules could chip away required micro-credits for students over time.  This would afford the flexibility for new learning experiences that integrate subjects, work off-site, or allow students more choice in their work.  I want to be a part of making this possible in Byron and beyond.

The new English/History-integrated Grand Challenge Design course for next year will be a useful first step forward in exploring integrated teaching and learning in Byron.  If we can successfully create deep experiences that engage students in multidisciplinary learning, I think we can keep pushing against the traditional schedule and all of its weaknesses, barriers, and cost overhead.  I can imagine all 11th graders trading in traditional coursework for a year-long, themed, integrated experience that is heavily defined by their own dreams and needs.